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The male reproductive system does the sperm production, stores it and transport it when required, which is all controlled by the hormonal system. The sperms are produced in the testicle and are stored in the epididymis. At the time of ejaculation, the sperm are transported via the vas deferens through the ejaculatory duct mixed with seminal fluid from the seminal vesicles and prostate glands and leaves the penis through the urethra.
Male infertility can result from low sperm production, abnormal sperm function, ejaculatory duct dysfunction & erectile dysfunction. Lifestyle factors, environmental factors, chronic health problems may also contribute to male infertility.
This is a medical condition of a man whose semen contains no sperm. In humans, Azoospermia affects about 1% of the male population and may be seen in upto 20 % of male infertility situations. A lack of sperm in the ejaculate can be due to the blockage of the male genital system (obstructive Azoospermia) with completely normal sperm production or the result of poor sperm production ( non-obstructive azoospermia), which interferes with the production of sperm.
Azoospermia is usually detected in the course of an infertility evaluation. It is done on the basis of two semen analysis evaluations done at separate occasions (when the seminal specimen after centrifugation shows no sperm under the microscopic examination). Hormonal test like, FSH, LH, Total Testosterone, Prolactin, Semen test for Fructose levels ,Ultrasound scrotum and Karyotype are also important to diagnose the case.
There are two main types of azoospermia: