What Is Azoospermia?
Azoospermia is a medical condition of a man whose semen contains no sperm. In humans, Azoospermia affects about 1% of the male population and may be seen in upto 20 % of male infertility situations.
What causes Azoospermia?
A lack of sperm in the ejaculate can be due to the blockage of the male genital system (obstructive Azoospermia) with completely normal sperm production or the result of poor sperm production ( non-obstructive azoospermia), which interferes with the production of sperm.
How can it be diagnosed?
Azoospermia is usually detected in the course of an infertility evaluation. It is done on the basis of two semen analysis evaluations done at separate occasions (when the seminal specimen after centrifugation shows no sperm under the microscopic examination).
Hormonal test like, FSH, LH, Total Testosterone, Prolactin, Semen test for Fructose levels and Karyotype are also important to diagnose the case.
Treatment of Azoospermia?
- In obstructive Azoospermia surgery can often fix the blocked tubes in the reproductive tract safely and effectively restoring the flow of the sperms.
- Non-obstructive Azoospermia is either intrinsic testicular impairment or inadequate gonadotropin production. Testicular extraction of the sperms under the operating microscope is the first line treatment.
- Hormone treatment depends on their existing hormonal levels, coaxing sperm back to their semen or increasing the probability of find sperm during extraction. These hormone include FSH (follicle stimulating hormone), Human Chorionic Gonadotropin (HCG), Clomiphene etc.
- Varicocelectomy, means enlarged and widened veins on the scrotum that can impede sperm production. Upto 40 % of men see sperm return to their semen with this procedure.